HISTORY

The O.Ya. Usikov Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics
  of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (IRE NASU) was established in 1955 on the basis of the former Departments of Electromagnetic Oscillations and Radio Wave Propagation of the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology of NASU. The main objective of the newly founded Institute was research and development in the wide frequency range of electromagnetic wave spectrum, with special emphasis on the millimeter (mm) and sub-millimeter (sub-mm) waves.
Since its establishment, the Institute has gained status of widely-known scientific center, whose achievements determine the level of the national science in radio physics, vacuum electronics, quasi-optics, microwave studies in solid-state physics and biophysics, radio wave propagation, remote sensing of Earth from airborne and space-borne platforms, etc.

The most significant achievements of IRE NASU are listed below:
  fundamental theoretical and experimental analysis of the phenomena of electromagnetic wave generation has been carried out; a series of new radiation sources of millimeter and sub-millimeter wavebands have been developed, with wide potentialities in radar,communi- cation systems,
and defense applications;
  pulse-mode magnetrons have been designed, whose operation mode is called the " Kharkov 11 one, as well as continuous-mode magnetrons,
klynotrons1 and reflection klystrons covering the wavelength range from 0.5 mm to 2 cm;
  new sources of coherent radiation of the mm and sub-mm ranges have been designed: orotrons (diffraction radiation sources) of pulsed and continuous modes having champion parameters in terms of high stability, narrow spectrum, low noise and high power ;
  high-efficient sources of far-infrared and optical band have been developed: dye lasers with a tunable frequency of induced emission;
  full sets of the waveguide measuring devices (within the range from 1 mm to 10 mm), a set of quasi-optical wide-range measuring devices and components for measurements within the wavelength range from 0.1 mm to 1 mm have been developed ;
  quasi-optical single- and multibeam interferometers-polarimeters of the sub-mm range have been developed for the hot plasma diagnostics in large Tokamak fusion machines;.
  an one-of-a-kind experimental research setup has been designed for studying the non- linear processes in nuclear systems by using the methods of electron-spin and nuclear- paramagnetic resonance;
  computationally efficient and mathematically correct methods of solving boundary-value problems of electromagnetic wave diffraction by periodical and open structures of various geometries have been developed;
  advanced methods of mathematical modeling of the problems of analysis and synthesis of complicated electromagnetic systems have been suggested.
  The results of the studies were published in 24 monographs and awarded Lenin Prize (1960), National Prizes of Ukraine (1972, 1974, 1981, 1989), State Prize of the USSR (1987), Prize of USSR Council of Ministers (1990), and an IEEE Microwave Pioneer Award (2000).

Solid-State Physics and Biophysics:
  new physical effects have been predicted and discovered: cyclotron resonance in metals, acoustic-magneto-electric effect, anomalous penetration of electromagnetic waves into metals and radio-frequency effects;
  the waves, oscillations, instabilities and nonlinearities in the plasma in semiconductors have been studied; new modes of surface magnetic-plasma waves have been predicted;
  the theory of plasma instabilities occurring due to the effect of dc- and ac-electromagnetic fields in homogeneous, periodic-layered; magnetic, and other semiconductors has been developed;
  coherent phonon radiation in active paramagnetic: crystals has been experimentally in- vestigated, and a monochromatic phonon radiation of the laser type has been revealed; quantum source of coherent phonons has been designed, that is an acoustic analogue of the laser;
  high-stable solid-state quasi-optical sources with a low frequency-noise level have been developed;
  the nature of the structure stability of the most important biopolymers: proteins and nu- cleic acids interacting with the hydrate-ion medium at different temperatures and effected by the mm waves and ionizing radiation has been studied.
  The results of this research have been published in 12 monographs and awarded the National Prizes of Ukraine (1980, 1986), an A. Zubarev Prize of the Kharkov Region (1981), a K.D. Sinelnikov Prize of NASU (1987), and an I. Pulyi Prize of NASU (1999).

Radio Wave Propagation and Remote Sensing of Earth from Airborne and Space-Borne Platforms:
  complex theoretical and experimental study of the wave propagation in various wave- bands over the Earth and sea surface, in the atmosphere and outer space has been carried out; the effect of the wave propagation on the natural media has been analyzed;
  two-scale model of the wave scattering by a rough surface has been developed; based on this classical model, the low-grazing-angle scattering by the Earth surface has been analyzed;
  a number of unique methods and devices have been developed for horizon sensing over the sea surface;
  new field of remote sensing -radio oceanography -has been initiated, which is concerned with the radar measuring of characteristics of sea waving,.
  pioneering observations of Earth have been carried out from orbital platforms with the aid of remote sensing systems. The first Soviet X-band side-Iooking radar were installed onboard the satellites Kosmos-1500 and Kosmos-1602. They helped release a caravan of 26 freighters blocked up by the Arctic ice (1983), and to monitor the rescue operation of an icebreaker sent to release the research ship Professor Somov blocked by the Antarctic ice (1985);
  new methods and tools for remote acoustic sensing of the seabed have been developed;
  a series of radar with wide potentialities has been designed in the range from the mm to decameter wavelengths for defense and industrial applications;
  methods and algorithms of the analog and digital processing of astronomic images have been developed.
  The results of this research have been published in 2 monographs and awarded the USSR State Prizes (1952, 1977), National Prizes Ukraine (1986, 1987), Lenin Young Scientist Prize (1985), Prize USSR Council of Ministers (1990), and .D. Sinelnikov Prize of NASU (1992).
  In 1971, IRE NASU was awarded with the USSR Order of Red Banner.
 
 Directors of IRE NASU:
  1955-1973: Alexander Y. Usikov,
academician f NASU. was the most enthusiastic
founder of the institute that was named after him in 1996.
  1973-1993: Viktor P. Shestopalov,
academician of NASU.
  since 1993: Vladimir M. Yakovenko,
academician of NASU.
  Today, the institute has 600 employees, including 220 scientists, among them there are 1 academician and 2 corresponding members of NASU, 45 holders of Doctor of Sciences degree (D.Sc., higher doctorate in Ukraine), and 130 Ph.D. degree holders. 25-strong Scientific Council of IRE is composed from 5 senior administrators and 20 high-reputed scientists who are elected by general voting for a 3-year term. The Council is responsible for overall research and development policy, supervision of the quality of ongoing research,
and appointments and promotion of research staff.
  Important role is played by the Scientific Council of NASU on Radio-Physics and Microwave Electronics headed by academician V.M. Yakovenko. The secretariat of the Council is located in IRE. This body is staffed with a number of leading scientists of IRE and other Ukrainian research centers. It is responsible for elaborating the national policy in the broad area of microwave and mm-wave physics and technology.

 The institute is one of the primary organizers of the following forums:
  tri-ennial Kharkov International Symposium Physics and Engineering of Millimeter and Sub-Millimeter Waves(MSMW),and
  bi-ennial International Conference " Mathematical Methods in Electromagnetic
Theory II I (MMET).
  Both meetings have English as a single working language. Each of them attracts around 250 participants from Ukraine, Russia and other countries of the Former Soviet Union, plus a growing number of participants from allover the world.
Areputed Ukrainian technical journal Radio Physics and Electronics is edited and printed in IRE. It publishes papers authored by scientists of Ukraine and other countries of the Former Soviet Union, written in Ukrainian, Russian and English. A specialized permanent D.Sc. and Ph.D. degree Jury in Radio Physics, Physical Electronics and Geophysics works in the institute. According to Ukrainian practice, this 15-strong jury of experts is nominated for 3-year term by the National Qualification Commission of Ukraine.
  There is a post-graduate (Ph.D.) course and a number of higher-doctorate (D.Sc.) research fellowships in the institute. Admission is arranged on competitive basis and successful candidates have to sit the examinations in the major, philosophy and English. The majors are Radio-Physics, Solid State Physics, Physical Electronics and Biophysics. IRE has given birth to a number of other research establishments: in 1974, a Special Design Bureau with a Pilot Production Department was established at the same location as IRE. It is aimed at applied research jointly with the institute scientists or independently and small-series production of microwave and mm-wave devices. It has a certain degree of freedom in its policy but maintains a close collaboration with IRE.
  As early as in 1958, research in decameter radio astronomy was initiated by academician Semion Y. Braude, then vice-director of IRE. Since then, four generations of wide-band electrically controlled antennas have been developed, the most remarkable of them is the one-of- a-kind radio telescope UTR. Expansion of research activity in this field, as well as in the space radio physics and mm-wave radio astronomy called for specific facilities and separate administration. Therefore, in 1985 a new academic establishment, Institute of Radio Astronomy of NASU, was branched off IRE on the basis of the former Department of Radio Astronomy. Its head, academician Leonid N. Litvinenko, became a director of IRA.
  In 1980, remote sensing of Earth from orbital platforms was initiated and headed by Professor Anatoly I. Kalmykov. The Department of Remote Sensing, headed by him, developed pioneering methods and designed unique equipments for remote sensing that were used onboard the USSR Kosmos - type and Okean - type satellites, and the first Ukrainian Earth- observation satellite Sich. High level of expertise and authority won in this field conditioned the foundation of a separate Center of Radio Physical Sensing of Earth in 1994.
  This center is jointly administered by the National Space Agency and NASU. It was headed by A.I. Kalmykov and has been named after him since 1996.

 
 
 
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